An Armstrong number is a special type of number where the sum of the digits of the number, each raised to the power of the number of digits, is equal to the original number. For example, the number 371 is an Armstrong number because 3**3 + 7**3 + 1**3 = 371. To check if a number is an Armstrong number, we can convert it to a string, get the length of the string, and then iterate through each digit of the number. For each digit, we raise it to the power of the number of digits and add it to a sum. Finally, we compare the sum to the original number. If the sum is equal to the original number, then it is an Armstrong number. Otherwise, it is not an Armstrong number.

**Here is a python program that checks if a given number is an Armstrong number:**

```
def is_armstrong(num):
# Convert the number to a string and get the length
num_str = str(num)
num_len = len(num_str)
# Initialize a variable to store the sum
sum = 0
# Iterate through each digit of the number
for digit in num_str:
# Raise the digit to the power of the number of digits and add it to the sum
sum += int(digit)**num_len
# Return True if the sum is equal to the original number, False otherwise
return sum == num
# Test the function with some examples
print(is_armstrong(371)) # True
print(is_armstrong(153)) # True
print(is_armstrong(1634)) # True
print(is_armstrong(123)) # False
print(is_armstrong(407)) # False
```

This program first converts the number to a string and gets its length. It then iterates through each digit of the number, raises it to the power of the number of digits, and adds it to a sum. Finally, it returns True if the sum is equal to the original number, and False otherwise.

In conclusion, Armstrong numbers are a special type of number where the sum of the digits of the number, each raised to the power of the number of digits, is equal to the original number. These numbers can be identified by using a simple algorithm that involves converting the number to a string, getting the length of the string, and iterating through each digit of the number to calculate the sum. By understanding how to identify Armstrong numbers, we can better understand and work with these unique and interesting numbers in various mathematical and computational contexts.

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