# Python Data Types

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In Python, data types are used to classify one particular type of data, determining the values that you can assign to the type and the operations you can perform on it.

Python has several built-in data types, which can be grouped into the following categories:

• Numeric: `int`, `float`, `complex`
• Boolean: `bool`
• Sequence: `str`, `list`, `tuple`, `range`
• Set: `set`, `frozenset`
• Mapping: `dict`

### 1) Numeric Data Types

`int` (integers)

An integer is a whole number, positive or negative, without a decimal point. You can use the `int` data type to store whole numbers ranging from -2147483648 to 2147483647.

Here are some examples of `int` values:

``````
x = 42

y = -1234

z = 0

``````

### 2) Float

`float` (floating-point numbers)

A float is a number with a decimal point. You can use the `float` data type to store fractional numbers, such as 3.14 or -9.81.

Here are some examples of `float` values:

``````
x = 3.14

y = -9.81

z = 0.0
``````

### 3) Complex Data Types

`complex` (complex numbers)

A complex number is a number with a real and imaginary part. You can use the `complex` data type to store complex numbers, such as 3 + 4j or -1.2 + 3.4j.

Here are some examples of `complex` values:

``````
x = 3 + 4j

y = -1.2 + 3.4j

z = 0 + 0j
``````

### 4) Boolean Data Type

The `bool` data type represents a boolean value, which can be either `True` or `False`.

Here are some examples of `bool` values:

``````
x = True

y = False
``````

### 5) Sequence Data Types

`str` (strings)

A string is a sequence of characters, such as “hello” or “goodbye”. You can use the `str` data type to store a string.

You can create a string by enclosing characters in single quotes (‘) or double quotes (“).

Here are some examples of `str` values:

``````
x = 'hello'

y = "goodbye"

z = "I'm a string"
``````

### 6) Lists

`list` (lists)

A list is an ordered collection of items. You can use the `list` data type to store a list of items.

You can create a list by enclosing a comma-separated sequence of items in square brackets ([]).

Here are some examples of `list` values:

``````
x = [1, 2, 3]

y = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry']

z = ['a', 1, 3.14, True]
``````

### 7) Tuples

#### `tuple` (tuples)

A tuple is an immutable sequence of items. You can use the `tuple` data type to store a tuple of items. You can create a tuple by enclosing a comma-separated sequence of items in parentheses (()).

``````
x = (1, 2, 3)

y = ('apple', 'banana', 'cherry')

z = ('a', 1, 3.14, True)
``````

### 8) Ranges

`range` (ranges)

A range is an immutable sequence of numbers. You can use the `range` data type to store a range of values.

You can create a range by calling the `range` function with two or three arguments: the start value, the stop value, and (optionally) the step value.

Here are some examples of `range` values:

``````
x = range(0, 3)      # [0, 1, 2]

y = range(2, 10, 2)  # [2, 4, 6, 8]

z = range(10, 2, -2) # [10, 8, 6, 4]
``````

### 9) Set Data Types

#### `set` (sets)

A set is an unordered collection of unique items. You can use the `set` data type to store a set of items.

You can create a set by enclosing a comma-separated sequence of items in curly braces ({}).

Here are some examples of `set` values:

``````
x = {1, 2, 3}

y = {'apple', 'banana', 'cherry'}

z = {'a', 1, 3.14, True}
``````

### 10) Frozenset

#### `frozenset` (frozen sets)

A frozen set is an immutable set of unique items. You can use the `frozenset` data type to store a frozen set of items.

You can create a frozen set by calling the `frozenset` function with a set as an argument.

Here are some examples of `frozenset` values:

``````
x = frozenset({1, 2, 3})

y = frozenset({'apple', 'banana', 'cherry'})

z = frozenset({'a', 1, 3.14, True})
``````

### 11) Mapping Data Type

#### `dict` (dictionaries)

A dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs. You can use the `dict` data type to store a dictionary.

You can create a dictionary by enclosing a comma-separated sequence of key-value pairs in curly braces ({}).

Here are some examples of `dict` values:

``````
x = {'a': 1, 'b': 2}

y = {'apple': 5, 'banana': 3, 'cherry': 7}

z = {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3, 'd': 4}
``````

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