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# Basic Syntax

Comments are ignored by the interpreter and used to provide explanations or clarifications in your code.

``````
# This is a single line comment

"""
This is a
multi-line
comment
"""
``````

### 2) Variables

Variables are used to store data.

``````
name = "Alice"  # string
age = 25        # integer
height = 1.65   # float
is_student = True  # boolean
``````

### 3) Data Types

Python supports several data types:

``````
# Strings
text = "Hello, World!"

# Numbers
integer = 42
float_number = 3.14

# Booleans
is_true = True
is_false = False

# Lists
my_list = ["apple", "banana", "cherry"]

# Tuples
my_tuple = ("apple", "banana", "cherry")

# Dictionaries
my_dict = {"name": "Alice", "age": 25}
``````

## 4) Operators

Python has several operators for performing calculations:

``````
# Arithmetic operators
x = 5 + 3   # addition
y = 5 - 3   # subtraction
z = 5 * 3   # multiplication
q = 5 / 3   # division
r = 5 % 3   # modulus
s = 5 ** 3  # exponentiation

# Comparison operators
a = 5 == 3  # equal
b = 5 != 3  # not equal
c = 5 > 3   # greater than
d = 5 < 3   # less than
e = 5 >= 3  # greater than or equal to
f = 5 <= 3  # less than or equal to

# Logical operators
g = True and False  # and
h = True or False   # or
i = not True        # not
``````

## 5) Conditional Statements

Conditional statements are used to perform different actions depending on whether a condition is true or false.

``````
if age > 18:
elif age == 18:
print("You just turned 18!")
else:
print("You are a minor")
``````

### 6) Loops

Loops are used to execute a block of code multiple times.

``````
# For loop
for i in range(5):
print(i)

# While loop
i = 0
while i < 5:
print(i)
i += 1
``````

### 7) Functions

Functions are used to encapsulate code and reuse it throughout your program.

``````
def greet(name):
print("Hello, " + name)

greet("Alice")
``````

### 8) Classes

Classes are used to create objects that can have properties and methods.

``````
class Person:
def __init__(self, name, age):
self.name = name
self.age = age

def greet(self):
print("Hello, my name is " + self.name)

alice = Person("Alice", 25)
alice.greet()
``````

### 9) File I/O

File I/O is used to read and write data to files.

``````
with open("myfile.txt", "r") as f:
print(contents)

# Writing to a file
with open("myfile.txt", "w") as f:
f.write("Hello, World!")
``````

### 10) Lists

Lists are used to store multiple items in a single variable. Lists are mutable, which means you can change the items inside them.

``````
fruits = ["apple", "banana", "cherry"]
print(fruits[1])  # Output: banana
fruits[1] = "kiwi"
print(fruits)     # Output: ['apple', 'kiwi', 'cherry']
``````

### 11) Tuples

Tuples are used to store multiple items in a single variable. Tuples are immutable, which means you cannot change the items inside them.

``````
fruits = ("apple", "banana", "cherry")
print(fruits[1])  # Output: banana
# fruits[1] = "kiwi"  # This will raise an error
``````

### 12) Dictionaries

Dictionaries are used to store key-value pairs. Dictionaries are mutable.

``````
person = {"name": "Alice", "age": 25}
print(person["name"])  # Output: Alice
person["age"] = 26
print(person)          # Output: {'name': 'Alice', 'age': 26}
``````

### 13) String Formatting

String formatting is used to combine strings and variables into a single string.

``````
name = "Alice"
age = 25
print("My name is {} and I am {} years old.".format(name, age))
# Output: My name is Alice and I am 25 years old.
``````

### 14) List Comprehensions

List comprehensions are used to create lists in a concise and readable way.

``````
numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
squares = [x**2 for x in numbers]
print(squares)  # Output: [1, 4, 9, 16, 25]
``````

### 15) Lambda Functions

Lambda functions are used to create small, anonymous functions

``````
f = lambda x: x**2
print(f(3))  # Output: 9
``````

### 16) Modules

Modules are used to organize code into reusable units.

``````
# Importing a module
import math
print(math.pi)  # Output: 3.141592653589793

# Importing specific functions from a module
from math import pi
print(pi)  # Output: 3.141592653589793
``````

### 17) Exceptions

Exceptions are used to handle errors that occur during the execution of a program.

``````
try:
x = 1 / 0
except ZeroDivisionError:
print("Cannot divide by zero")
``````

### Publisher

Publisher @ideasorblogs